PUBLIC DISCUSSION: Senate meeting (Session V)

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Re: PUBLIC DISCUSSION: Senate meeting (Session V)

Postby Gaius Florius Lupus » Mon May 08, 2017 7:43 pm

Salve Tribune!

Let me give you a general idea of the concept.

The principle idea is that of a “spiritual-cultural Roman Nation" as it has been outlined by our Consul L. Curtius Philo in one thread in the forum. Therefore we have to turn our Republic into an umbrella organization firmly based in the real world without presumptuous titles or legislation, politics and interference.

What is the purpose of our community?
  1. Providing support for the Collegium Pontificum
  2. Maintaining an Internet forum for all Romans all over the world to communicate
  3. Organizing events and projects
What is the purpose of the political offices (magistrates, senators etc.)?
They have none in the real world.
They have no imperium to enforce their edicts.
They unnecessarily interfere with real-life projects and the collegia.
(Exempli gratia we lost Marcus Audens over an interference in "his" collegium in order to enforce a democratic structure in line with our bylaws.)

What is to do?

Elimination of all political offices
This includes all magistrates of the Republic (censores, consules, praetores, aediles, quaestores, tribuni). Religious offices remain in place (sacerdotes, pontifices, flamines, augures etc.).
The senate is dissolved. In a community of 400 people everybody can speak for himself. All decisions can be made by a normal Internet poll. There is no need for centuriae or tribus. One person, one vote!

Elimination of all bylaws, leges, and edicta
The only rules are the Code of Conduct of the forum, the national laws of each country we live in, and the ancient non-codified Mos Maiorum as we can reconstruct it from original sources. Where the Mos Maiorum is in conflict with modern national laws, the citizen will necessarily have to obey his local laws, if he does not want to get in conflict with local law enforcement.
There is no need for any new legislation or any legislative body.
Collegia and societates can of course have their own bylaws as they like.

Reorganization of the non profit cooperation into a collegium (Aerarium)

What do we keep and how do we organize it?

  1. Cultus Deorum Romanorum
    All religious offices will remain untouched. The titles remain in place. The Collegium Pontificum organizes itself according to its own decisions.
  2. Collegia
    The collegia keep working as they have organized themselves with whatever titles and offices they have established.
  3. Forum
    Our Internet forum can be managed like any other message board in the world. There is one administrator (or two) who is in charge of the technical issues. We do not need to invent an impressive title for him. The term “administrator” is already a Latin title. The same is true for “moderator”. This is also an original Latin title. They can simply be the founders of our Republic or be annually elected.
    The hosting fee is paid by the Aerarium.
  4. The Non Profit Corporation
    The corporation is organized as a collegium like the Collegium Pontificum. They have no other objective but assigning funds to the website or projects. Their decisions are done according to their bylaws and Canadian law.
    They use real life titles like “director” instead of the inappropriate term “lictor”. “Director” is also an authentic Latin title. A “lictor” is a bodyguard of a magistrate. There is no need to invent something fancy.
How will citizenship change?

Citizenship will be abolished. The whole concept makes no sense. Does someone cease to be a member of the spiritual-cultural Roman nation, when he resigns citizenship in the Roman Republic and joins another organization? I do not think so, neither do all those who have resigned or never joined our Republic.
Citizenship will be replaced by “registration”.
By signing up at the forum, one registers as a Roman. The Roman name is formally recognized and it is possible to participate in the forum. The registration is managed by the Tabularium.

Two forms of registration:

  1. Registering as a member of a Roman organization
    If a member of Nova Roma for example wants to register, then he has to provide his citizen number at NR and an extract from the Album Civium that proves his citizenship. All citizens of recognized Roman communities qualify for such a registration (e.g. NR, CPR, RPR, RA, SVP etc.).
  2. Individual registration
    If somebody is not yet member of any other recognized Roman organization, he can register directly with the Tabularium.
The job of the Tabularium is only to ensure the consistency of the database. One person should only be registered under one Roman name. No duplicates of names should exist. The validity of the citizenship in the corresponding Roman community should be verified. On request a plastic ID card can be issued for a fee. Profit from the sale of these cards would go to the Aerarium. The card should state under which potestas (Censor of NR, Council of RA, etc.) it was issued.
With this card one should be able to say: “I am a Roman, because I am centrally registered as such.”


No higher institution than the Collegia

The Collegia should not operate under any higher central authority. They are managed as they decide themselves. Other Roman communities can register as collegium (or whatever name they choose). They are provided with a sub-forum under their control. Our Republic would only act as service provider as it is currently done by Facebook or Yahoo. There would be no interference from outside and they would not be subject to any of our institutions. We would only provide a service to them.
The psychological obstacle to register under our umbrella would be eliminated, because none of our magistrates would be above them and they would not be subject to any of our regulations, because we have none.

What about the provinces?

Provinces are important regional communities, but they are not anything like the ancient Roman administrative provinces. We might call them civitates or coloniae. They should organize themselves as they want and have the same status as a collegium. They could be led by two duumviri or a procurator or whatever. The job of our Republic would simply be registering the membership in our database. They could request financial support for certain projects, which would be approved or denied by the board of directors of the Aerarium (the corporation). The board of directors could also organize polls to see, whether or not the majority of Romans support a certain project.


What would actually be different?
  • There would be no titles.
  • We would not waste time in legislation, elections, bureaucracy, and political disputes and focus instead on communication among all Romans, the distribution of knowledge, and projects.
  • We would not be a “virtual republic”, but a service provider for Roman-themed organizations.
  • We would use real-life job descriptions (admin, moderator, director etc.) that would not sound ridiculous to outsiders.
  • We could bring all those together who currently see us as competing organization.
What would be the same?
Almost everything that matters would remain unchanged.
  • We would still communicate and discuss in the forum.
  • We would still have a corporation to manage our assets.
  • We would still have religious institutions.
  • We would still have local communities.
  • We would still have common projects.
So why changing anything?
  • Because we would offer a smaller target for criticism.
  • Because there would be no disgruntled citizens if there is no citizenship and no leadership.
  • Because it would makes things easier with fewer bureaucratic hurdles.
  • Because it would bring us back into the real world, no RPG, no micro-nation elements.
  • Because it would be less controversial and allow all Romans worldwide to come together, simply because they want to make use of our services (name registration; message board; market place; technical, historical, and linguistic advise, maybe even an own currency).
  • Because it would better serve the abovementioned purposes of our community.
I am sure that this concept can be improved in some details. But it should be a draft for a necessary change. Now it is up to you to propose it to the Senate or not.

Summary:

The principle idea is to replace all our organizational structure with a non-hierarchical system of parallel operating Collegia/Societates/Communitates (or whatever you like to call them). The Collegium Pontificum, the Aerarium (non profit corporation and treasury), the Tabularium (Roman name registration), the website management, the Civitates (local communities) and the other Roman organizations would all work independent from each other with no central leadership and no rules other than the historical Mos Maiorum, national laws and the Terms of Service of our forum.

Vale!
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Re: PUBLIC DISCUSSION: Senate meeting (Session V)

Postby Tiberius Iulius Nerva » Mon May 08, 2017 8:20 pm

Gaius Florius Lupus wrote:
Two forms of registration:

  1. Registering as a member of a Roman organization
    If a member of Nova Roma for example wants to register, then he has to provide his citizen number at NR and an extract from the Album Civium that proves his citizenship. All citizens of recognized Roman communities qualify for such a registration (e.g. NR, CPR, RPR, RA, SVP etc.).
  2. Individual registration
    If somebody is not yet member of any other recognized Roman organization, he can register directly with the Tabularium.
The job of the Tabularium is only to ensure the consistency of the database. One person should only be registered under one Roman name. No duplicates of names should exist. The validity of the citizenship in the corresponding Roman community should be verified. On request a plastic ID card can be issued for a fee. Profit from the sale of these cards would go to the Aerarium. The card should state under which potestas (Censor of NR, Council of RA, etc.) it was issued.
With this card one should be able to say: “I am a Roman, because I am centrally registered as such.”


I agree only on this part. For example Brutus could has citizenship since 2001 (2754 AUC) and me since 2011 (2764 AUC).
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Re: PUBLIC DISCUSSION: Senate meeting (Session V)

Postby Publius Iunius Brutus » Tue May 09, 2017 3:44 am

Brutus Cen. Sal.

I think I should explain why things are set up the way they are. I believe there are some misconceptions. Hopefully, I can clear this up.

Why was the Roman Republic founded?

I was involved with Nova Roma for about 14 years. When I first arrived there in 2001, I found a thriving community. This community introduced me to the Cultus Deorum, to the Roman Virtues and to the concept of restoring the best of ancient Roman culture for the present day. I believed in the mission of Nova Roma; I was committed towards it. But over time it became increasingly obvious that Nova Roma was not going to be able to fulfill these objectives. The organization was unable to adapt and respond to the needs of the community. It was flawed in how its finances were organized within the corporation. It was not effective in restoring the Cultus Deorum.

In 2014 several citizens here attempted to institute reforms within Nova Roma. These reforms were soundly rejected, and we were blocked from having any meaningful future within Nova Roma. The result was the founding of the Roman Republic. This group started as a discussion group but evolved into the separate RR organization which exists today.

The goal of the Roman Republic was to take the good core idea of Nova Roma, the restoration of Roman culture and the Cultus Deorum, and improve upon the vehicle by which this can be advanced. Over the next 12 months, extensive research was performed on Nova Roma and all such organizations. I personally read every message ever posted to the Nova Roma main list here: http://academiaminervalis.org/NRForumArchives/

This study resulted in the foundation of this non-profit corporation and the system we have here. It also resulted in our Declaration: http://www.romanrepublic.org/wip/declaration.html

The Declaration assures the Republican model will be kept intact. The reasons for this I hope will become obvious.

The system here was not designed to mirror the ancient Republic for this reason alone. The system was designed to address errors that occurred in Nova Roma. The old Republican model was very appealing for this purpose. This is the reason why the Republican system was adopted. The old system is quite effective for dividing powers and providing checks and balances.

So the system here is actually designed to avoid past problems. So far I think it has actually achieved this fairly well.

Why have a corporation?

To achieve our goals the Roman Republic needs to manage funds. No single person or group should control these funds. Therefore, a separate legal entity needs to exist. The NPO allows the Roman Republic to collect and manage funds outside any one person or group.

The corporation in the RR is represented by the Board of Directors (aka. Comitia Curiata). This board is insulated from other aspects of the government. This is purposeful. The idea is to prevent conflicts of interest between the corporation with its unique requirements and the rest of the Roman Republic governance. Basically, the Board of Directors are the legal stewards of the material assets of the NPO. Beyond this they serve no role. Instead, the operation of the Republic is delegated to the officers (aka magistrates). This is a typical model used by many corporations. It is nothing special, despite some critics trying to paint it as something unneeded or odd.

Why have magistrates?


Again, I think the latin terminology tends to confuse people, particularly our critics. Magistrates ARE officers of the corporation. To prevent conflicts of interest and too much power resting with one group the officers of the corporation manage the daily affairs of the Corporation. This is a normal thing in the NPO world.

The managers of the corporation are also called consules within the RR. But to the outside world, they are simply managers of the RR NPO. Similarly, the vice-managers are called praetores within the organization. These are useful managerial roles. The RR requires about 20-50hrs of management a week and probably more as we grow. These officers play a key role.

Likewise, the other officers/magistrates hold real corporate roles that are useful for growing and encouraging activity. The colleague system also prevents one tyrannical or negligent personality from upending the system. It has proven very useful in this regards. The system of offices we have also allows for the development of leadership talent. This is a long term and needed investment.

Why are such balances of power needed?

After being in this community for over a decade, it is clear that it is a challenging group to coordinate. There are many geographic interests, many competing personal interests, and many views about the CDR. Nova Roma did much better than most restorationist groups in coordinating these interests. But the errors in its system eventually led to a breakdown in the balance. What we have done in the RR is improve upon this system in a thoughtful and reflective manner. A year of work went into this system. It is not half hazardly tossed together. Every part of the system is designed to serve a modern needed function. I am happy to ellaborate if you have a question about a certain part of this system.

Is it complicated? Sure, I suppose it is more complicated than some other groups. But I would argue we are also more ambitious. We are focused on the world, on cultores, on reenactors, on casual enthusiasts, everyone who loves Rome. This diversity is also our strength. I would not change this. But it requires more than a casual system to protect our mutual long-term interests. The corporate system, the officers and operating procedures (lex) help protect this balance. This said, the average citizen does not need to understand every detail of every operating procedure.

Why do people critique the magisterial system?

I common challenge within our community, be it NR, CPR, RPR, or here at the RR, is combating the casual assumption that we a role-playing. It is an easy assumption on the first glance from someone who does not know the community. Anyone that spends time here would quickly see this is not the case. We are working to create flesh-and-blood communities that are united across vast distances by our common RR. We have already made great strides here, particularly in Eria, Nova Galia, and Sarmatia.

But it is easy to critique and say, "Oh, look you have a fake consul!". This is very misleading to the point of almost being deliberately deceitful. Outside of this community, the consul is simply the manager of the NPO. This is not a surprising position for a person in an NPO to hold. In fact, I think it is necessary for this type of organization.

People critique the system based on superficial assumptions because it's easy to pick on such silly assumptions. It takes no deep understanding or complex analysis. But the bottom line, this critique is misplaced in the context of what these officers do. The offices are analogous to those found in another similar type of NPO. There is so substance behind such a critique.

So why do people critique and leave?

First off we are talking about <2% of our citizens who leave.

Some folks are not here to wish us well. A minority does not want us to succeed. This is because of an unfortunate predisposition in some other groups to reject cooperation with other groups. Some groups view the success and growth of the RR as a threat to their very existence. Nothing could be further from the truth. But this does not stop people coming here to toss stones. Much of these stones are misleading and even those casting them know it.

I will give an example. One person who recently left openly disliked the Roman Republic and was not shy in favoring the CPR. They mocked the work we do here and our efforts behind out backs. Despite this we showed them kindness and patience, to show how this RR is open to all, even our critics. Despite this, they critiqued our system, called us role-players, etc. But then when questioned on why the CPR, their favored organization also has magistrates, they got upset and left. Are these the actions of someone with pure intent or no alternative motive? Did they truly have any intention to contribute to this project in a meaningful way?

Others may not like the system because it blocks them from obtaining the control they seek within our organization. Power must be shared here. If you can not collaborate with others, you will have a limited experience here. Again, this is by design. Nevertheless, this causes some to leave our Republic for they can found other communities where they declare themselves "Emperor." I know, it may seem absurd. But this is what has happened recently with one well-known former citizen. I personally think we are better off without these people.

Truthfully, I don't view these resignations as a failure of our system. I think it shows our system is working and protecting the interests of our citizens.


If we did away with this system, we would lose much of what makes us strong and robust from other groups. This system works. It can be improved, but it works. We are balancing competing interests and priorities. We have a fair system for resolving disputes. We have a system that responds to its members. We are growing faster than ever.

To toss this all away now would let those that wish the RR ill a victory. This is what they want. I think it is important, no, vital, that we ask what the motivations of those who critique our system are. Are they pure? Are they hypocritical? To change our system just because people critique it on incorrect merit would not help us. Instead, I advocate for improving the understanding of our system.

A good start is taking a quick read of the bylaws of the RR. http://www.romanrepublic.org/wip/Roman% ... _final.pdf

Our citizens should understand what the magistrates actually are. Censores are secretaries, Consules are managers, etc. Citizens should know that founding a collegia is open and easy to do. That the RR supports them founding their own groups and seeking their own interests.

Over the next month, I will work with our team of corporate officers (eg. magistrates) to produce a series of videos that help orientate citizens and provide an accurate picture of how our community governs itself and why. I hope such education will make the merits of our system more clear as well as the rational behind it.
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Re: PUBLIC DISCUSSION: Senate meeting (Session V)

Postby Lucius Aurelius Curio » Tue May 09, 2017 4:23 am

Curio Lupe Sal.

I completely agree with everything Brutus has said. But I would like to expand more on the topics of the titles and your worry of corruption in the magistracies. Both are legitimate concerns and something I hope to address coming up here in the near future.

Consul - Manager of the Roman Republic
Praetor - Assistant Manager of the Roman Republic
Censor - Secretary of the Roman Republic
Aedile - Resource Assistant of the Roman Republic
Tribune - Advocate of the Roman Republic
Quaestor - General Assistant of the Roman Republic
Procurator - Regional Manager of the Roman Republic
Aranearius - Webmaster of the Roman Republic
Praefectus Aerarii - Financial Assistant of the Roman Republic

These are all the titles outlined in our bylaws and what roles they serve. Now, many of us know them only by their Latin titles. This is something I hope to remedy by including their titles in both NPO form and their Latin names to all new members in the welcome letter they receive.

I recently had the opportunity to speak with a Deacon of a local Catholic church, a well respected member of my community. He found out I was in a Roman organization, and we spent several hours talking about topics such as evolution of religion, commonalities between the Roman Catholic church and our religion, virtues of ancient Romans, etc. Eventually it came to him asking what I did in the Roman Republic. Now, I could have introduced myself as Consul, but I didn't I told him this, word for word: "Well, I am one of the co-managers of the Roman Republic. Internally, we call our job Consules, in honor of the original leaders of the Roman Republic of ancient times." This was a concept he understood very quickly, and thought it was a nice recognition of those who we based our system off of. He also understood that we weren't claiming to be as great as the ancient Consules, or roleplayers.

As many of you may know, I have quite a few duties in the RR, one of which is as procurator to Provincia Transborealis Silva. In this regard, I literally spend hours a week hitting the pavement, putting up posters wherever I can that won't get the police called on me. I believe in building flesh and blood communities the world across, and it was a major motivation in my choosing to run for Consul (manager) in the first place. This is a goal I keep pushing towards by wanting faster turnaround for Procurator applications (through issuance of edict), pushing non provincial areas to become provinces (through the new amendment currently in the Senate), and always on the lookout for individuals willing to run for regional manager of their areas they live in.

On the topic of possible corruption of the magistracies, I will say a small snippet on. Yes, there will be people of less that virtuous personalities to eventually take up the mantle of Praetor, Consul, Censor, etc. This is unavoidable. However, our founders put checks and balances in place to allow for the removal of these individuals if this does come to pass. Abuse of power is not be tolerated, at all.

I do, however, agree with your idea of recognition of time spent in other organizations. I believe those who have belonged to these other organizations should be able to be recognized for their time spent there. This is something that I shall work on getting approved through the Senate in the near future as well.

Optime Valete!

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Re: PUBLIC DISCUSSION: Senate meeting (Session V)

Postby Publius Iunius Brutus » Tue May 09, 2017 4:47 am

Brutus sal.

To expand upon the roles of the officers mentioned by our Consul, here are the descriptions of these roles lifted directly from the Corporate Bylaws;


Manager (Consul) – A maximum of two (2) managers (consuls) shall be nominated by the Century Committee (Comitia Centuriata) and subsequently ratified by resolution of the members (Comitia Curiata). Managers (consuls) shall be responsible for the daily affairs of the Corporation. They shall be responsible for creating and implementing the strategic plans and policies of the Corporation. The managers shall be subject to the authority of the board. The managers may suspend or expel Class: Citizen members as a disciplinary measure as defined in the bylaws. Any expulsion must be ratified by the members (Comitia Curiata) as specified in the bylaws. The managers shall have speaking rights on the advisory committee (Senate). The managers shall also have the ability to call and chair the advisory committee (senate), tribal committee (Comitia Tributa) and century committee (Comitia Centuriata). The managers shall have the ability to issue temporary operating procedures (edicts), and to propose standing operating procedures (lex). The managers (consuls) may overrule any temporary operating procedure (edict), or proposed standing operating procedure (lex), issued by another officer including another manager (consul). Other duties are to be specified in the standing operating procedures of the Corporation. A manager (consul) must be a Class: Citizen Lictor Curiatus or Class: citizen member and holds this office for a term of one (1) year.

Associate Managers (Praetor) - A maximum of two (2) associate managers (praetors) shall be nominated by the Century Committee (Comitia Centuriata) and subsequently ratified by resolution of the members (Comitia Curiata). The Associate Managers (praetors) shall assist the managers (consuls) in the daily affairs of the Corporation. They shall be responsible for assisting in the creation and implementation of the strategic plans and policies of the Corporation. The associate managers (praetors) shall, be subject to the authority of the board. This officer may suspend or expel Class: citizen members unless such a decision is overruled by a manager (consul). Any expulsion must be ratified by the members (Comitia Curiata) as specified in the bylaws. The associate managers (praetors) shall have speaking rights on the advisory committee (Senate). The associate managers shall also have the ability to call and chair the advisory committee (senate), tribal committee (Comitia Tributa) and century committee (Comitia Centuriata). This officer shall have the ability to issue temporary operating procedures (edicts), and to propose standing operating procedures (lex). The associate managers (praetors) may overrule any temporary operating procedure (edict), or proposed standing operating procedure (lex), issued by another officer including another associate manager (praetor); however, they may not overrule any operating procedures proposed by the managers (consuls) or the secretaries (Censores). Other duties are to be specified in the standing operating procedures of the Corporation. An associate manager (praetor) must be a Class: Citizen Lictor Curiatus or Class: citizen member and may hold this office for a term of one (1) year. This officer is to be appointed by resolution of the members.

Secretary (Censor) – A maximum of two (2) secretaries (censores) shall be nominated by the Century Committee (Comitia Centuriata) and subsequently ratified by resolution of the members (Comitia Curiata). Secretaries (censores) are to assist the directors upon request as custodians of all books, papers, records, documents and other instruments belonging to the Corporation. The secretaries shall be responsible for managing membership dues collection and for appointing members to the Advisory Committee (senate), Century Committee (Comitia Centuriata), Tribal Committee (Comitia Tributa), and Plebeian Committee (Concilium Plebis). The secretaries shall also have the ability to approve new Class: Citizen members into the Corporation. The secretaries (censores) shall, be subject to the authority of the board. This officer shall have speaking rights on the Advisory Committee (senate). The secretaries (censores) shall have the ability to issue temporary operating procedures (edicts) and overrule the temporary operating procedures (edicts) issued by another secretary (censor). Other duties are to be specified in the standing operating procedures of the Corporation. A secretary must be a Class: Citizen Lictor Curiatus or Class: Citizen member and may hold this office for a term of two (2) years.

Resource Assistant (Aedile) – A maximum of four (4) Resource Assistants (aediles) shall be nominated. Two (2) by the Tribal Committee (Comitia Tributa) and two (2) by the Plebeian Committee (Concilium Plebis) and ratified by resolution of the members (Comitia Curiata). The resource assistants (aediles) are to assist with development and supervision of online resources as well as general development and maintenance of membership services. This officer shall, be subject to the authority of the board. The Resource Assistants (aediles) shall have speaking rights on the Advisory Committee (senate). This officer shall have the ability to issue temporary operating procedures (edicts) and may overrule any temporary operating procedure (edict) issued by another officer including another Resource Assistant (aedile); however, they may not overrule temporary operating procedures (edicts) proposed by the managers (consuls), associate managers (praetors) or secretaries (censores). Resource Assistants (aediles) originally nominated by the Plebeian Committee (Concilium Plebis) may also call and chair meetings of the Plebeian Committee (Concilium Plebis). Other duties are to be specified in the standing operating procedures of the Corporation. A Resource Assistant (aedile) must be a Class: Citizen Lictor Curiatus or Class: citizen member and may hold this office for a term of one (1) year.

Advocate (Tribune) – A maximum of four (4) Advocates (tribunes) shall be nominated by the Plebeian Committee (Concilium Plebis) and ratified by resolution of the members (Comitia Curiata). The Advocates (tribunes) shall have the ability to overrule any temporary operating procedure (edict), proposed standing operating procedure (lex), or proposed expulsion of a member from the Corporation if performed by an officer; however, such action requires the written public support of one additional Advocate (tribune) and the majority support of the Plebeian Committee (Concilium Plebis). This officer cannot rescind any standing operating procedure already (lex) ratified and inforce. This officer cannot rescind any decision to expel a member which has already been finalized or ratified upon by the members (Comitia Curiata). The Advocate (tribune) may also call and chair meetings of the Plebeian Committee (Concilium Plebis). The Advocates (Tribunes) shall have the ability to attend and observe all private and public meetings of the members (Comitia Curiata). Other duties are to be specified in the standing operating procedures of the Corporation. This officer shall, be subject to the authority of the board. An advocate can only be a Class: Citizen member and may hold this office for a term of one (1) year. 4

General Assistant (Quaestor) – A maximum of four (4) General Assistants (quaestors) shall be nominated by the Tribal Committee (Comitia Tributa) and ratified by resolution of the members (Comitia Curiata). The General Assistants (quaestors) are to assist other officers and directors on various tasks as specified by the board, Advisory Committee (senate), or operating procedures. The General Assistants (quaestors) shall have speaking rights on the Advisory Committee (senate). This officer shall have the ability to issue temporary operating procedures (edicts) but may not overrule temporary operating procedures (edicts) proposed by other officers expect those issued by other General Assistants (quaestors). Other duties are to be specified in the standing operating procedures of the Corporation. This officer shall, be subject to the authority of the board. A General Assistant (quaestor) must be a Class: Citizen Lictor Curiatus or Class: Citizen member and may hold this office for a term of one (1) year.

Regional Manager (Procurator) – As many Regional Managers (procurators) as required are to be nominated by the advisory committee (senate) and ratified by resolution of the members (Comitia Curiata). All Regional Managers (procurators) are to represent the interests of members within a defined geographic area. This geographic area is to be defined by the advisory committee (senate) and confirmed by resolution of the members (Comitia Curiata). This officer shall have the ability to issue temporary operating procedures (edicts) which apply directly to their assigned region, but may not overrule any operating procedures proposed by other current officers of the Corporation, or issue temporary operating procedures (edicts) which influence a region not within their appointed geographic area. Other duties are to be specified in the standing operating procedures of the Corporation. This officer shall, be subject to the authority of the board. A Regional Manager (procurator) must be a Class: Citizen Lictor Curiatus or Class: citizen member member and may hold this office for a term of one (1) year.

Assistant to the Board – The board may directly appoint by resolution as many assistants as needed to carry out tasks defined by the board. This officer shall be subject to the authority of the board. The officer shall serve a term of one (1) year.

Webmaster (Aranearius) – The board may directly appoint by resolution a webmaster (aranearius) to maintain the online resources of the Corporation. This officer shall be subject to the authority of the board. The officer shall serve a term of one (1) year.

Financial Assistant (Praefectus aerarii) - The board may directly appoint by resolution a financial assistant to maintain financial records and documentation on behalf of the corporation. This officer shall be subject to the authority of the board. They are to work with the general assistants (Quaestors) on this task. The officer shall serve a term of one (1) year.

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Re: PUBLIC DISCUSSION: Senate meeting (Session V)

Postby Publius Iunius Brutus » Tue May 09, 2017 4:59 am

Brutus sal.

I anticipate another question will be this:

Why have a Senate, Comitia Centuriata and Comitia Tributa etc?

This is a reasonable question. But the modern need for this was thought out.

I. ADVISORY COMMITTEE - SENATE

This is a Corporate Committee made up of the most experienced administrators. Past managers and associate managers. Retaining this group of advisors helps vet any strategic plans implemented by the current managers. It also balances competing interests. For example, in one year you might have two managers (consules) who are strong CDR supporters. Other aspects of the community may not be represented if prior leaders did not retain a voice on the advisory committee. So far this committee has improved many plans and done good work. Losing this group would hurt our interests. Furthermore, I suspect the usefulness of this committee will grow as we acquire more experienced people.

II. CENTURY COMMITTEE - COMITIA CENTURIATA

This committee provides a voice to the most active contributors of our community. Those who volunteer time and money get a greater say here. This rewards service and also makes sure the stakeholders of the RR are heard. Again this is a nice 1:1 adaptation of the ancient model for today. It works well.

Service deserves to be rewarded. Those who contribute should shape our future. That is logical. They are the larger "shareholders" within the RR.

III. TRIBAL COMMITTEE - COMITIA TRIBUTA

This committee balances the century committee. Here REGIONAL interests are represented. The tribes are equally divided between North, South America and Europe. In the past, NR had tensions between America and Europe. This committee makes sure that officers elected have broad support from all places where citizens live. No one region can dominate.

Due to this, you see South America, Europe, and North America represented among our magistrates consistently. 95% of our citizens are from these regions.
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Re: PUBLIC DISCUSSION: Senate meeting (Session V)

Postby Gaius Curtius Philo » Tue May 09, 2017 5:05 am

Regarding electoral suffrage:

We divide the suffrage into three assemblies. This also is intentional and not made just to mimic old Rome.

The Comitia Centuriata is which elects our most powerful roles. It also approves a lot of our legislation. This is intentional. It serves two good purposes: I) It makes a hostile takeover impossible. People can't simply go in mass to the RR and take control of our administration for bad intentions, because to gain power in the CCen you need to earn it, it is not strength in numbers, which leads to II) It makes sure your say in how things are run in the grander scheme of things is directly related to your merit. You have the power that you DESERVE to have, either from activity or donations.

The Comitia Tributa was created specifically to resolve an age old problem that existed in NR: the constant conflict between Europe and North America. This made so that power was always alternating beliciously between the two continental factions. The Comitia Tributa creates a Balance. It grants the same amount of Tribes to both continents. This guarentees that both continents have an equal say and permits that this animosity does not grow in Our community. To gain higher offices one almost always NEEDS to be approved by the Tribes. The tribes vote for Quaestores and for Curule Aedile. So regional balance is firmly entrenched.

The Concilium Plebis also is very important for Many reasons. I) It gives the brute Majority an avenue to express their wishes. II) It guarentees that the Majority has defined advocates that will defend their rights and views independent of geography (tributa) or denarii (centuriata). III) It guarentees that they are not only consulted but have veto power in case of abuse (Tribunal veto goes for the CPleb to ratify). IV) It guarentees the Majority have a place in government (with the election of Plebeian Aediles).

All three of these form an important Balance. In which one watches the other. Checks and Balances in their Highest form.
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C. Curtius L. f. Vot. Philo Aurelianus
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Re: PUBLIC DISCUSSION: Senate meeting (Session V)

Postby Publius Iunius Brutus » Tue May 09, 2017 5:09 am

Gaius Curtius Philo wrote:
The Concilium Plebis also is very important for Many reasons. I) It gives the brute Majority an avenue to express their wishes. II) It guarentees that the Majority has defined advocates that will defend their rights and views independent of geography (tributa) or denarii (centuriata). III) It guarentees that they are not only consulted but have veto power in case of abuse (Tribunal veto goes for the CPleb to ratify). IV) It guarentees the Majority have a place in government (with the election of Plebeian Aediles).

All three of these form an important Balance. In which one watches the other. Checks and Balances in their Highest form.


I must say that the Tribunes have demonstrated their ability to be useful checks and balances several times this year. So again, another merit to the system.
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Re: PUBLIC DISCUSSION: Senate meeting (Session V)

Postby Gaius Curtius Philo » Tue May 09, 2017 5:47 am

Concerning specific positions:

Quaestor - The Quaestores have been evolving in their usage from last year to this year. In general they have begun to be seen as project leaders. We are putting up many projects on the background and it has been the Quaestor's duty to make sure it will happen. They gather the information. Contact the necessary people. Do the ground work. It is a vital role to have because it gives newcomers a safe and very supervised position of Leadership. It makes us be able to test each newcomer that enters office to make sure they got what it takes and also to PREPARE them for bigger responsibilities. This "buffer state" keeps the RR itself safe because it prevents people that just got here to have a lot of power with no supervision or instruction.

Aediles - This is hands down the most time consuming job of the Republic. Aediles are the lifeblood of our Republic. They manage so many things... They approve the Collegia and Societates, they handle the Mercatus (making them the most important factor of economic movement in our Republic), they help the collegia and societates in technical problems and are even placed as mediators of conflict in the bylaws of some collegia. They are the ones that organize the Ludi, ehich is a lot more taxing than it seems. They need to be constantly in touch with the dates. Advertise tge Ludi beforehand. Make engaging games. Find voluntairy donners to give you guys nice prizes. Judge each and every entry and then make sure the people get their prize. All in all, you can understand why we have four of them.

Praetores - These are the conflict managers of our Republic. It is ESSENTIAL to have men and women that do the job they do. So many orgs crumble under the weight of bad mediation. I have been Praetor before and I can tell you it is probably the most stressful job in the Republic (even if not as hard as being Aedile). I have defused SO MANY conflicts that I cant even remember how many were they... And they make sure that if a conflivt gets legal it is delt with in a fair manner. Having two Praetores makes it harder for a Praetor to be unjust or negligent. The Consules can also override the Praetores, making it even more difficult for any Praetor to act in a manner unbecoming. And even SO there are the Iudices (Judges) that need to declare guilt before any legal action can take place. All in all very restricted and controlled.

Tribunes - The defenders of the masses, the voice of the people, the supreme guardians of our constitution. These guys have proven time and again how valuable and vital they are. The work of Q. Camillus and P. Laevus created a new standard for the post. If they agree, they can veto any proposal made and send it for the Concilium Plebis for ratification. If only one wishes the veto the veto still has a force for a few days, which gives time for the Tribune to discuss it with his collegue. As of now no Tribune ever issued a veto because the mere threat of it has been enough to make the magistrates change their actions, in respect to their post. They are advocates of the people and make sure the people is heard.

Consules - Our leaders. I am a personal friend of Consul L. Curio so I can tell you, this man works like a dog. It is a hard thankless job. The Consul is expected to manage the direction the RR will take. They focus on the Big Picture. They are the main legislators and also the main embassadors of the RR to other groups. But even this role has a ton of vhecks and balances restricting unfairness and abuse. The Consul always has a collegue that can (and has in the past!) veto their actions. The Consul may be also vetoed by the Tribunes. The Consul can be removed if a good number of the RR wishes ut (through a pettition). They can also be removed by the Comitia Curiata in an emergency situation. They can be vetoed by the Directors of the corporation if a majority disagrees with what is being done. There are so many ways in which the power of the Consul is limited... And even so, their term is only a year and no legislation they make is perminent unless approved by the Senate AND a popular assembly. Their temporary legislation also cannot contradict our permanent legislation. The power is strongly entrenched with the stakeholders of the RR and very well balanced.

Censores - Our most experienced magistrates. To be a Censor one has to go through the entire Cursus Honorum. It wouldnt be a position that just anyone could enter. They are the custodes of our Citizenship. They are the ones that approve our citizens. Any misaction they may do in that capacity is grounds for real world LEGAL action. It is a very serious business. They also guard the Mos Maiorum. They have in this capacity served our Republic incredibly well in the past, denouncing extremism and aggressiveness.

All in all, these posts are part of an Ecosystem. They balance each other out. They help each other out. They keep us strong and safe. They incentivize activity. Im honored to have met so many good people on the ranks of the magistrates :)
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Re: PUBLIC DISCUSSION: Senate meeting (Session V)

Postby Gaius Florius Lupus » Wed May 10, 2017 12:23 pm

Avete honorabiles magistrati!

I highly appreciate your detailed answers. They were very insightful regarding the origin of our Republic. This is the difference between a good leader and a bad one. A good leader explains his decisions. We can be happy that we are blessed with good leaders. I hope this will never change.
However I am still not convinced that this is the only possible way to go. There would have been alternative ways to organize our community. But now is not the time to discuss it, since the Senate session is over.
I would also like to express that In spite of my criticism I fully recognize and respect the current system. It would never be a reason to abandon the Republic because of it. This would not be the Roman way. Roman pietas demands that one respects the order of things, even if one does not like them or disagrees with them.

And one thing is sure: Among all Roman communities today (And I am a member of NR, RPR and RA too.), our Republic is still the best and most successful one regardless its flaws.
So let us continue with things as they are, but let us keep an open mind for a future where changes might become necessary to advance our goals.

Valete!
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