Halys River (Kizil Irma)

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Halys River (Kizil Irma)

Postby Marcus Minucius Audens » Sun Oct 02, 2016 3:52 pm

>>>> Halys River (Kizil Irmac) <<<<

The modern name, in Turkish, means the Red River, but the ancient name signifies Salt River, from the salt springs on its upper reaches. This river is the longest river in Asia Minor and is contained completely within the boundaries of Turkey. It rises in the northeast of the penisulaand proceeds in a great loop, into the center of the country and then northward to the Euxine (Black) Sea, at a point west of Amisus (Samsun). During the sixth century BC the Halys separated the Lydian Kingdom from the Persian Empire. In Roman times it flowed through the provinces of Lesser Armenia, Cappadocia,Galatia and Pontus (subdivided under Diocletian into Paphlagonia and Helenopontus).

In the present day it is used as a source of hydroelectric power and is not used for navigation.

The geography of the river is interesting as it flows for a total of some 842 miles (1,355km). It rises in Eastern Antolia around 39.8 degrees north, by 38.3 degrees east and flows first to the west and then southwest to an approximate point; 38.7 degrees north by 34.8 degrees east. The the river forms a a very wide arch which is known as “Halys Bend” flowing first to the west and then turning northwest and passing to the northeast of Lake Tuz, the it turns back to the north and northeast where it is joined by its major tributary the Delice River and after zigzagging to the northwest to a confluence with the Deprez River, and turning again to the northeast joining the Gorklrmak River and then finally moving through the outlying delta into the Black Sea at 41.72 degrees north by 35.95 degrees east.
There are three dams on the river which are named the Boyabat, Altinkaya, and the Derwent. The river water is generally made use of in order to grow rice, and in some areas, water buffalo are maintained.

Historically the River was known the Battle of Halys. It has since been changed or renamed by some as the Battle of Eclipse. This is because as the first premodern batt;e to be named for an eclipse which has been dated with certainty and which brought about the end to the conflict. The Hittites call the river the Marassantiya. The course of the river formed the western boundary of Hatti, the core land of the Hittite Empire. In classical antiquity it was the boundary between Asia Minor and the rest of Asia, as well as the boundary betweenPontos and PaphlagoniaAt the time of the Battle of Haly or the Battles of the Exlipse, it was the border of Lydia to the West and Media to the east until Croesus of lydia crossed it to attack Cyrus the Great in 547 BC. He was defeated and Persia expanded to the Aegean Sea.


>> M. Grant, “A Guide to the Ancient World,” (H.W. Wilson Company, 1986).

Respectfully Submitted;
Marcus Audens

Marcus Minucius Audens

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